Many parents receiving assistance from TANF face serious barriers to employment. Sometimes called the “hard to employ,” these parents typically require enhanced assistance to prepare for, find, and keep jobs. Federal TANF rules influence state policies toward the hard to employ. Yet states vary considerably in approaches to serving this population. TANF programs should recognize that most of the caseload requires a mix of treatment and work opportunities. Success for recipients with barriers to employment often requires of case management and support services. This brief summarizes states’ approaches to serving recipients with barriers to work and identifies the service elements that are most effective in helping the hart-to-employ succeed in work.